You can also get failures like this when you max out physical memory and are doing involved work with File and Folder objects.
There may be other ways of consistently getting PS to crash, but this is my short list.
I can't recall any of the newer versions Photoshop ever crashing when I was working in the GUI.
Like X, I have had it crash when I have been trying something in a script.
There was also one time when someone at work download and installed a browser add-on. Whenever I tried to run a script CS2 would close. I did a system restore to remove the browser thingy and CS2 was fine.
To add to w2ed list, you might also want to check your ram. One of the chips may have a bad address.